However, in the case of facilities that are serviced by railroads that have a large fleet of random cars and almost a non-existent fleet of unit train cars, new ways must be found to unload random cars efficiently. This is particularly true of export terminals located on the eastern seaboard of the USA.
This paper will review traditional and modern day car unloading methods at rail to water terminals. Unloading rates and associated manpower requirements will be reviewed in terms of what is practical and achieved today. Influence of site layout on unloading schemes and efficiency will be discussed.